References - Z
This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter Z. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:
References - Z
Robert Charles Zaehner.
published by the Oxford University Press, London, 1973, ix + 480 pages, ISBN 0-19-501666-1.
Originally published by Clarendon Press, 1969.
Breath Practices for Flute Players
“Burmese Music — A Preliminary Enquiry”,
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 10, Number 3, published by Cambridge University Press, 1940, pages 717–754, doi:10.1017/S0041977X0008873X.
Publication 608839 on JSTOR (subscription access).
Introduction: Burmese music is a virgin field for research. Nobody can bewail this virginity more than myself. To help me there does not seem to exist a single western work on Burmese music though there are such classics as Fox Strangways' on Indian and J. H. Levis' on Chinese music. Many writers on Burma have passed remarks, kind or humorous, on Burmese music. But few have attempted a technical study of it. Nothing Burmese escaped the notice of Sir James George Scott, of course. But I know of only two who left some technical remarks on Burmese music: Paul Edmonds, the author of Peacocks and Pagodas; and P. A. Mariano, in an appendix on Burmese music to that most lovingly produced book Burma by Max and Bertha Ferrars.
“Burmese Music — A Preliminary Enquiry”,
Journal of the Burma Research Society, Volume 30, Part 3, December 1940, pages 387–422.
Les Instruments de Musique en Tunisie «The Musical Instruments of Tunisia»,
Centre des Musiques Arabes et Méditerranennes, Tunis, Tunisia, in Arabic and French, 1992, 58 pages, hardcover.
Publisher's description: This book presents the permanent collection of musical instruments displayed in the Ennejma Ezzahra palace. Fethi Zghonda, musician and researcher, carries out a brief study shedding light on several aspects pertaining to musical instruments in Tunisia.
S. L. Zhai, X. P. Zhao, S. Liu, F. L. Shen, L. L. Li & C. R. Luo.
“Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials”,
Scientific Reports, Volume 6, Number 32388, published by Nature, August 31, 2016, 10 pages, doi:10.1038/srep32388
Abstract: The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double metamolecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.
Juzhong Zhang, Garman Harbottle, Changsui Wang, and Zhaochen Kong.
“Oldest Playable Musical Instruments Found at Jiahu Early Neolithic Site in China”,
Nature, Number 401, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., September 23, 1999, pages 366–368.
The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia,
Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (5)
Abstract: Six extremely well-made complete bone flutes have been found at the early Neolithic site of Jianhu in Henan Province, China, along with fragments of around 30 more. These flutes, which are made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane, could be the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated multinote musical instruments. The best preserved flute has seven main holes, along with a very small hole near hole 7. It was tested using a 'Stroboconn' sound-analyzing stroboscope.
Zhang Juzhong, Garman Harbottle, Xiao Xinghua, and Wang Changsui.
Discovery and Research on Jiahu Bone Flutes in Wuyang, China,
December 14, 2000, 3 pages.
Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (2),
Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (25)
Juzhong Zhang, Xinghua Xiao, and Yun Kuen Lee.
“The Early Development of Music. Analysis of the Jiahu Bone Flutes”,
Antiquity, Volume 78, Number 302, published by Antiquity Publications Ltd., December 2004, pages 769–778.
See the article available for free in the Archives section of Antiquity Journal
Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (20)
Abstract: The authors present the musical properties of well-preserved bone flutes recently recovered from Jiahu, an early Neolithic site in central China with a sequence beginning in the seventh millennium BC (Antiquity 77: 31-44). Tonal analyses of five of the flutes indicate a gradual development from four-tone to seven-tone scale. By adding more holes to the pipe, structuring the pitch intervals closer to each other, and by alternating the keynote, the prehistoric musicians could play increasingly expressive and varied music. In addition, the flutes became progressively standardised in pitch, presumably so they could play in harmony. The study shows that the Jiahu flute makers and their musicians became progressively familiar with acoustics and developed a cognitive scheme of music comparable to that of modern times.
Zhang Juzhong and Lee Yun Kuen.
“The Magic Flutes”,
Natural History, Volume 114, Number 7, September 2005, pages 42–47.
Publication naturalhistory11407unse on Archive.org (open access).
Subtitle: Nine thousand years ago, Neolithic villagers in China played melodies on instruments fashioned from the hollow bones of birds.
Zhang Juzhong (张 居 中) and Cui Qilong (崔 启 龙).
“The Jiahu Site in the Huai River Area”,
Contained in [Underhill 2013], Chapter 10, 2013, pages 194–212.
Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (2)
Zhang Chi and Hsiao-chun Hung.
“Jiahu 1: Earliest Farmers Beyond the Yangtze River”,
Antiquity, Volume 87, 2013, pages 46–63.
Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (5)
Abstract: The authors summarise the latest evidence for the introduction of rice cultivation into northern China, and show that it most probably began there in the early seventh millennium BC as a result of influence or migration from the Yangtze Valley.
John Zhang, Douglas Dean, Dennis Nosco, Dennis Stratholopus, and Minas Floros.
“Effect of Chiropractic Care on Heart Rate Variability and Pain in Multisite Clinical Study”,
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 29, Number 4, May 2006, pages 267–274, doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.03.010.
Publication 16690380 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access).
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of chiropractic care in a multiclinic setting on sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activities using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis.
Methods: Physicians of chiropractic in private practice were provided with an HRV device to perform analysis before and after chiropractic adjustments on 10 subjects. At each site, 8 subjects were monitored before and after a single chiropractic adjustment, and 2 additional patients were followed for a 4-week period with 2 HRV recordings per week. Patient information forms and a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire were completed both before and after each chiropractic adjustment.
Results: Data from 96 physicians were divided into single-visit and 4-week groups. After 1 chiropractic adjustment, pain as analyzed by VAS was reduced significantly from 3.7 +/- 2.2 to 2.1 +/- 2.0 (P < .001). The mean heart rate reduced from 76.7 +/- 12.7 to 74.3 +/- 12.4 (P < .01), the SD of normal-to-normal QRS increased from a range of 55.8 to 44.6 to a range of 60.6 to 47.2 (P < .001), the high-frequency component increased from 359 +/- 968 to 444 +/- 1069 (P < .01), the low-frequency component increased from 403 +/- 753 to 465 +/- 755 (P < .05), and the total power increased from 1063 +/- 1886 to 1265 +/- 2048 (P < .01). After 4 weeks of chiropractic adjustments, pain measured by the VAS was reduced significantly before and after each visit as analyzed by t tests, but the significant changes were not found using analysis of variance analysis. The reduction of pain from each treatment was not maintained over the 4 weeks of study period. The analysis of variance on the HRV 4-week data found that changes in the SD of normal-to-normal QRS, total power, and low-frequency components reached statistically significant levels (P < .05). The heart rate and the high-frequency component did not change significantly (P > .05).
Conclusion: In this study, HRV and VAS changed in patients as a result of chiropractic care.
Xiao P. Zhao, Shi L. Zhai, Song Liu, Fang L. Shen, Lin L. Li, Chun R. Luo.
“Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute”,
October 10, 2015, 6 pages, arXiv:1510.02868
Abstract: Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches o a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.
“The Berlin Wax Cylinder Project: Recent Achievements and Aims”,
contained in [Berlin 2002], 2002, pages 163–172.
Contains 1 song.
Ethnological Museum of Berlin
Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»,
published by the Ethnologisches Museum Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, in German and English, 2006, 512 pages with 981 page digital document and 73 digital music files, ISBN 3-88609-527-4, hardcover book with CD-ROM.
Contains 3 songs.
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (11),
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Europe,
Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings,
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America (3),
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Oceana (2),
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4),
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)
English Introduction: On the CD-ROM the user will find the documentation of all collections as far as they are available in the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, either as in the original form or as a copy. From the documentation on the contents and the circumstances of the cylinders, it becomes apparent that the listing was made according to a special scheme (cf. Felix von Luschan‘s guidelines: „Anleitung für ethnographische Beobachtungen und Sammlungen in Afrika und Oceanien“, Königl. Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin. 3. Aufl. 1904:61ff.). Accumulated over a span of more than 60 years in many countries by different researchers, the documentation is exceedingly heterogeneous.
Christiane H. Ziegler.
Le mastaba d’Akhethetep: Une chapelle funéraire de l’Ancien Empire,
Monographies des musées de France, published by the Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, in French, 1993.
Veselé Pískání – Zdravé Dýchání «Merry Whistling – Healthy Breathing»,
published by Panton, Prague, Czech Republic, in Czech, 1993.
Abstract: Dostáváte do ruky velice zajímavou knížku. Není to pouze učebnice, ale vlastně také návod, jak se dobře naučit hrát na zobcovou flétnu a jak správně cvičit a dýchat. Tato škola hry se liší od ostatních především tím, že nabízí žákům také cvičení dechové gymnastiky. Dobře může hrát na flétnu pouze ten žák, který umí dobřé dýchat. Příjemný a srozumitelný titul, ve kterém si místo etud zahrajte spoustu známých českých lidových písní.
This very interesting book is not only a textbook, but also how well learn to play the flute and how to properly train and breathe. This school game differs from others mainly by also offering students practice breathing gymnastics. Only the child who knows how to breathe well can play the flute. This is a friendly and clear book which also teaches you to play a lot of famous Czech folk songs.
Howling at the Moon,
15 tracks, July 2005.
Which Flutes Play Together?
Terri L. Zucker, Kristin W. Samuelson, Frederick Muench, Melanie A. Greenberg, and Richard N. Gevirtz.
“The Effects of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Biofeedback on Heart Rate Variability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study”,
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 34, Number 2, June 2009, pages 135–143, doi:10.1007/s10484-009-9085-2.
Publication 19396540 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access).
Abstract: Recent studies have found a significant association between PTSD and low heart rate variability (HRV), a biomarker of autonomic dysregulation. Research indicates that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) biofeedback increases HRV while reducing related pathological symptoms. This controlled pilot study compared RSA biofeedback to progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as adjunctive interventions for 38 persons with PTSD symptoms in a residential treatment facility for a substance use disorder. Both groups were assessed at pre-intervention and 4-week post-intervention. Group x time interactions revealed significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms and increases in HRV indices for the RSA group. Both groups significantly reduced PTSD and insomnia symptoms and a statistical trend was observed for reduced substance craving for the RSA group. Increases in HRV were significantly associated with PTSD symptom reduction. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of RSA biofeedback in improving physiological and psychological health for individuals with PTSD.
Claus Zundel, Ralf Hamm, and Markus Staab.
Chants and Dances of the Native Americans,
Virgin Records, CDV 2753, 11 tracks, 1994, ASIN B000009CIO, audio CD.
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically,
Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture
Clint Goss composite information: The first album release of the gorup "Sacred Spirit" in 1994 was re-released at least 27 times in of times in at least 14 countries, based on information provided by Discogs.com. Frank Peterson reports (http://home.global.co.za/~jvd/right_n.htm) that the album has sold seven million copies. According to http://www.firstpeople.us/native-american/videos.html, the song "The Counterclockwise Circle Dance" is presented as a Native American chant, however the main vocals are an authentic Sami yoik ("Normo Jovnna" by Terje Tretnes), recorded in 1994 by Dutch Channel 4 during an interview as an example of a yoik. According to AllMusicSite.com, the recording, despite Channel 4's denial of having sold it, then ended up in a Virgin Records studio in the Netherlands. The Sami organisation Sámi kopiija demanded royalties from Virgin Records but this has so far been unsuccessful.
Clinical Pharmacology of Cannabinoids in Early Phase Drug Development,
Doctoral dissertation – Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands, 2008, 185 pages.
Lineke Zuurman, Marieke L. de Kam, Adam F. Cohen, Joop M. A. van Gerven, and Jacobus Burggraaf.
“Evaluation of THC-induced Tachycardia in Humans using Heart Rate Variability”,
2008, pages 87–96.
Abstract: Cannabis use induces tachycardia, but its mechanism is unexplained. Heart rate variability (hrv) can provide information concerning effects of drugs on parasympathetic and sympathetic tone. hrv data of healthy male volunteers were used from two separate double-blind and placebo-controlled studies. Rising doses of pure thc were administered by inhalation with or without co-administration of the selective cb1 antagonist ave1625. After thc administration, significant dose-related changes compared to placebo were seen in the ‘time domain’ on heart rate and sdsd. In the ‘frequency domain’ dose-related changes were seen on total power, low frequency power and high frequency power. Overall, normalized lf and hf and the lf/hf ratio did not change significantly. However, with the two highest thc doses, average values increased for lf and decreased for hf, leading to an average increase in lf/hf ratio. Co-administration of the selective cb1 antagonist ave1625 had no effect on hrv under placebo conditions, but completely antagonized thc-induced effects on hrv. This indicates that hrv is mediated by cb1 receptors. These findings confirm the involvement of cb1 receptors in thc-induced tachycardia and suggest that the increase in heart rate caused by acute thc administration may be caused by a peripheral mediated reduction in the vagal tone.